The sun sits in the middle of heaven. It has three planets above it known as the superior planets. These are mars, jupiter and saturn. It also has three planets below it known as the inferior planets. These are venus, mercury and the moon.
The sun is the source of power and heat in heaven and everybody knows that heat rises.
Ancient philosophers reached the logical conclusion that mars must absorb much of this heat for its sphere lay immediately above that of the sun. Saturn being the furthest away planet from the sun would be the coldest. Jupiter sat between mars and saturn.
Knowing that heat doesn’t sink downwards they reckoned that the three planets below the sun would be colder than the three above. But as venus is closer to the sun’s sphere it would be slightly warmer than the moon which was the furthest away. Mercury sat between venus and the moon.
Ancient astrologers believed that each planet had its own intrinsic humoral quality. They looked at how they appeared in the sky and this helped them to gauge how they would affect life on earth.
They knew that increased moisture and warmth made fruits ripen and swell, becoming plump, juicy and full of goodness. This fruitful analogy was applied to the planets. Planets that glistened and gleamed were assumed to have more moisture that the ones that didn’t. The most obvious example of this is the moon which swells up like a ripening fruit promising great bounty. But although nowhere near the moon’s size both venus and jupiter also glisten and gleam and were considered moist and bountiful too. In the very distant past mercury was actually known as ‘the Glistener’.
But if these planets glistened where did the moisture and warmth come from? Obviously the source of heat came from the sun. In the past it was believed that the earth gave off moist vapours which rose upwards into the atmosphere to be absorbed by the planets. The philosophy of planetary humors soon developed based upon each planet’s position with regard to the sun’s heat and these rising moist vapours.
The sun invigorates life and vitality with its golden rays of light. The sun has two obvious cycles by which we live our lives, the cycle of day and night and the cycle of the seasons. The sun is the cause of earthly activity and it’s qualities are obvious. It is primarily hot which leads to dryness. This is exactly what happens when the sun evaporates the morning dew or summer comes around. So the sun’s intrinsic humoral nature is hot and dry. It is at sunrise that earthly activity commences, ceasing at sundown when night falls. Daytime then is of the same humoral nature as the sun, hot and dry. The cycle of the seasons reflect this same sequence. Spring and summer are the warmer, dryer and dynamic seasons of the year for it is at spring life awakens following winter. Autumn and winter are the cold, wet and inactive seasons when life goes to sleep. Because the sun instigates earthly activity it is regarded as active and dynamic in nature, qualities associated with men. The sun is regarded as masculine in traditional astrology.
Far below the heat for the sun is the moon with no intrinsic heat of its own. It is considered as primarily cold. But being closest to earth its absorbs much of the rising vapours and is therefore moist. So the moon’s intrinsic humoral nature is cold and moist. But the story doesn’t end here. As it waxes it absorbs and reflects more of the sun’s light and more importantly its heat. So the moon becomes warmer and is normally regarded as humidifying, warm and moist. These qualities encourage fertility and growth. Night-time is when earthly activity ceases and night has the same humoral nature as the moon, it is cold and moist. It is during the night that we rest and rest is restorative. It nurtures our vitality and strength necessary for the forthcoming day. These are passive, feminine qualities associated with women. The moon is regarded as feminine in traditional astrology.
Saturn’s appearance in the sky is pale ash-grey, dull in colour. It moves very slowly through the night sky. It certainly doesn’t glisten. This gave the ancients clues to its humoral nature. Being furthest away from the sun’s heat it is primarily cold and it also receives precious little of the moist earthly vapours. Saturn’s intrinsic humoral nature then is cold and dry. These are not qualities conducive to growth or life. Although plants can grow in these conditions they do so in a slow, restricted way if they do manage to grow in the first place. Combined with saturn’s slow and deliberate heavenly motion it means that anything promised by saturn is never rushed – saturn’s effects are gradual and take time. This ensures stability and reliability. Because of saturn’s active effect of hindering life and growth it was regarded as masculine. It was known as the greater malefic.
Jupiter is sandwiched between saturn’s extreme cold and the scorching heat of mars. Here in this middle zone a happy medium exists. Jupiter glistens in the sky which we know indicates moisture and a fertile nature. Jupiter’s intrinsic humoral nature is regarded as temperate, warm and moist. Jupiter moves through the sky in a regular manner of approximately one zodiac sign per year. This stable motion in the sky when combined with a fertile nature was seen as a great boon. It helped life to thrive and produce consistent bounty. Because of jupiter’s active effect of promoting life and growth it was regarded as masculine. It was known as the greater benefic.
Mars is hot and dry for it lies immediately above the rising heat from the sun. Unsurprisingly mars’ intrinsic humoral nature is hot and dry. But this is not the warming and invigorating golden heat of the sun. It is a burning heat. Mars warns us of this by glowing red in the night sky like an ember. This extreme heat is not conducive to life. Although plants can grow in torrid conditions, following a quick spurt of growth they tend to dehydrate, burn out and die off. In the sky mars slows down and changes direction quickly when compared with the other superior planets. This gave mars its association with sudden changes, traits not usually conducive to growth and development. Combined with its active adverse effects on life and growth, mars it was regarded as masculine. It was known as the lesser malefic.
Venus is like the moon with no intrinsic heat of its own so is regarded as primarily cold. Venus does get some heat from the sun in the same way the moon does. Being closer to the earth it absorbs more moisture. Venus then has an intrinsic humoral nature of cold and moist. This is obvious by the magnitude of its light for venus glistens very brightly in the sky and is beautiful to behold. It is the third brightest object in the sky second only to the lights and venus denotes much fertility. Venus passively receives its moisture and heat. Both are conducive to life and growth. These are feminine qualities associated with women and so venus is regarded as feminine in nature. It was known as the lesser benefic.
Mercury is sometimes hot and dry at other times cold and moist. The hot and dry nature of mercury is due to his close proximity to the sun. Mercury’s cold and moist nature is due to his proximity to the moon upon who’s sphere he borders. Mercury is not considered as masculine or feminine but mixed in nature. We would expect anything promised by mercury to be fleeting for its humoral nature changes quickly. Mercury is also the fastest moving planet in the sky and often changes direction going backwards then forwards again and again. Being closest to the sun mercury is hard to see in the first place. Because of the aforementioned facts mercury’s variable nature meant that it was regarded as unstable. These are qualities not necessarily conducive to life and growth. As a result mercury was seen as slightly malefic in nature.
Our modern western calendar reflects the sun’s movements through the seasons and is linked to its motion through the zodiac signs. Just as day follows night, so too Spring follows Winter and reinforces the ancient idea that Time is cyclic. What goes around will come around again.
This is distinctly different to our modern linear approach to Time
There are many periods of time in traditional astrology all based upon observation of various celestial motions such as the aries ingress chart, the eclipse cycles or the saturn return to name but a few.
One useful time cycle is based upon each planet’s synodic cycle with the sun. It is quite commonly used in a variety of ways in traditional astrology and is known as the Minor Planetary Periods.
A planet’s synodic cycle is the time it takes for it to conjunct the sun at the same degree of the zodiac.
Ancient astrologers allotted each planet a specific number of years based solely on this observation. The planetary periods were calculated using the ancient Egyptian year which consisted of 365 days.
Ancient astrologers believed that at the time of a planet’s synodic return, the planet’s power would awaken to take effect and influence an individual’s life.
The minor planetary periods were a very commonly used predictive tool.
235 sun/moon synodic cycles in 19 years
309 lunation cycles in 25 years
63 synodic cycles in 20 years
5 synodic cycles in 8 years
7 synodic cycles in 15 years
11 synodic cycles in 12 years
29 synodic cycles in 30 years
The sun’s minor period is its 19 year eclipse cycle when it reoccurs at the same degree of the zodiac once more.
The moon’s minor period is the time it takes for its phases to reoccur on the same days of the year.
The two malefic planets of saturn and mars have a combined total of 45
The benefit planets, the moon, venus and jupiter, have a combined total of 45.
The via combusta is also known as the burned path or the fiery road, names that make the area sound grim. But where is it exactly? Although in the distant past there were a few different ideas on its exact location, accepted astrological tradition states it to be a 30 degree stretch between 15 degrees libra and 15 degrees scorpio inclusive.
In antiquity libra was actually part of the constellation scorpio and Claudius Ptolemy refers to the constellation of libra as ‘the Claws of the Scorpion’(1). It has always been regarded as an ominous area of the chart throughout the ages. Ancient stargazers worried about any planet arriving at this point, symbolically caught in the scorpion’s claws. We will probably never know the reason for the malefic association with this stretch of the zodiac but the reputation of the via combusta persists.
In an electional chart it served as a warning, foretelling of difficulty or trouble ahead – not a good indiction to commence any venture. In a horary chart it served the same purpose and was an indication to defer judgement until the astrologer was better informed.
Libra marks the start of the Autumn Equinox when the sun’s power wanes but both lights are affected in the signs that contain the via combusta. The sun is in fall in libra, the moon in scorpio. This area is opposite their exaltation signs of aries and taurus.
Further uncongeniality is emphasised if we recall that libra is the exaltation of saturn and scorpio is the domicile of mars. The greater and lesser lights are overcome by the greater and lesser malefics. The power of the luminaries is weakened hence this area’s link with danger. Because the sun and moon represent one’s life force and soul respectively, anything that diminishes or obscures them should definitely be avoided.
1. Claudius Ptolemy. Tetrabiblos. Book 1. Chapter 9.
It was believed in days gone-by that a child’s temperament could be influenced by the day of the week it was born. The following old poem was designed to teach children the days of the week and is one of many old fortune-telling poems illustrating a traditional belief in the planetary link between the days of the week, a child’s personality and what fate had in store for them. There are variations of the poem. I will use the one I know, taught to me in primary school in Scotland where the word ‘bonnie’ is commonly used – I still use it myself! It is worth remembering that the meaning of words change over the years so planetary links are not always apparent. A good dictionary is also a useful tool for astrologers. Some words have a totally different meaning nowadays so bear this in mind as you read the poem.
Monday’s child is fair of face, Tuesday’s child is full of grace, Wednesday’s child is full of woe, Thursday’s child has far to go, Friday’s child is loving and giving, Saturday’s child works hard for his living, And the child that is born on the Sabbath day Is bonnie and blithe, and good and gay.
Fair obviously refers to beauty but since the moon reflects the light of the sun it’s a less robust kind of beauty, it’s fairer, pleasing, rather than the knockout variety. Fair means just and free from bias but the word fair is also linked to auspiciousness and good fortune. So, according to the rhyme, anyone born on Monday will have a pleasing countenance, a balanced view and have a lucky life. The moon is the ruler of our emotions and the non-rational mind of our gut reactions and intuition, neither of which are necessarily based on established fact. So it’s just as well that these children have a bit of luck on their side. The moon is hidden under the sun’s beams at the time of a new moon, becoming visible in the sky as a thin crescent after a few days later. Being the lesser light it is fitting that the moon governs the day after the sun’s day of Sunday. This reflects the Thema Mundi where both the sun and moon’s domiciles and exaltations are adjacent.
Full of grace from a day ruled by mars? It seems like a contradiction for mars is the god of war. But the drive of the battlefield mars is equally useful in daily life as in warfare. In both instances, attack and aggression can be planned. Our physical energy and enthusiasm can be channelled in various ways. Athletes, dancers, acrobats and those who perform their daily physical tasks with precision and dexterity, like the village blacksmith or a stonemason, have one thing in common. They are bodily fit with well practised skills at their disposal. Smoothness of movement and effortless dexterity is second nature to them. Mars joys in the 6th house of drudgery, slavery and hard work so practise truly does make perfect. These finely honed physical skills are the product of controlled physical strength and stamina. This is why Tuesday’s child is full of grace. They say that a healthy body leads to a healthy mind and this will give the individual the attractive qualities of good manners and a sense of appropriateness and decency that make this child full of grace.
Full of woe nowadays refers to grief, bemoaning and bewailing one’s lot in life. In the past these attributes were normally linked to having a lot of responsibilities, challenges and a liabilities brought about by managing the affairs of others. As mercury governs this mid-week day he is appropriately sandwiched between the other planets, exactly where a scribe or messenger should be for mercury was messenger of the gods and at their service. Mercury is the ruler of our rational mind and intellect so it is well suited to tasks of this kind, channelling them to the matter at hand with precision and excellence. In mythology it was believed that mercury could be mischievous. A heavy burden would kept mercury constantly occupied with no free time to do as he pleased, hence he was full of woe. Mercury joys in the first house which has general signification over the head and its contents which includes the brain.
This child has far to go and this brings to mind long journeys to foreign places. It seems as if this kid has hit the jackpot! But until recent times most people didn’t travel far from their home town, village or hamlet unless on a religious pilgrimage. These were quite common in Medieval times. Apart from the religious aspect, travel gives people the opportunity to meet and experience new people, new cultures and the realisation there was something beyond their ken. This can be paralleled with religion. Travel does indeed broaden the mind. However travel can also be internal and might involve study and contemplation for it is via knowledge that we better ourself. We gain a greater understanding of the world, a positive trait that can take us far in life. Jupiter and his benefic nature enriches us bringing us closer to the Divine plan. However, the road to enlightenment is a long one and we will have far to go before we reach our journey’s end, if we ever do.
This day is governed by venus, traditionally the lesser benefic and the goddess of love, beauty and harmony. Venus is all about pleasure, particularly pleasures that are shared. This may give Friday its feel good factor. It was believed to be a good day for meeting friends and for courting. However, Friday wasn’t all plain sailing being considered a very unfortunate day. It was a particularly bad day to set sail and it was also traditional to hang criminals on a Friday and we still talk of Friday the 13th. Friday then had positive and negative associations for it was believed that Eve tempted Adam with an apple on this day. Since venus rules our flesh and our passion nature it’s an explosive combination and there is risk of being carried away. The rhyme gives indications for moderation. Friday’s child is loving and giving rather than being loved and given to. This child could be exploited, easily taken advantage of. It is worth keeping in mind that venus joys in the 5th house of the Thema Mundi, the house of pleasure.
This child will work hard for a living and this child initially seems to have drawn the short straw, getting a raw deal. As saturn is the greater malefic we wouldn’t expect anything saturn promises to be a breeze. But It’s worth bearing in mind that in olden days working hard was seen as a virtue, a positive trait. Hard work requires self discipline and a realistic outlook. By looking back over a completed job well done, we get a sense of achievement and fulfilment, developing a sense of fortitude and self confidence. These are highly desirable skills that provide a solid foundation upon which to build a life. Nowadays in our ‘why wait’ culture, avoidance of hard work is encouraged. This is not a realistic way of life, neither is it productive. Our hard working forebears would tell us if they could that although Saturday’s child works hard for a living, they are richer for it.
As the poem suggests this child is born with a sunny disposition. The word bonnie describes someone who is physically attractive and appealing. In bygone days a blithe person was thought of as a lighthearted soul, happy and without a care in the world but nowadays it has negative connotations like self-centred, thoughtless and even careless. The sun is at the centre of heaven and instills vitality and life with its rays. It rules our inner spiritual being so it was believed that children born under this benefic influence would both enshrine and reflect these same qualities giving these children a positive outlook in life and a generous nature.
Claudius Ptolemy and his Tetrabiblos are often neglected when it comes to looking at sex within the birthchart. Astrologers moan it’s not racy enough and are turned off by it’s dry, lengthy passages. They say it’s unexciting, so it’s often overlooked for a well thumbed Vettius Valens. But the truth is that the Tetrabiblos is stuffed with naughty bits waiting to be whipped out from under its covers. It’s about time it was put back up on the top shelf where it belongs. But where exactly is all this sex hiding?
The Quality of the Soul
Ptolemy only begins to touch on sex whilst probing for “the quality of the soul” or what we would nowadays call “the personality”. This method, long used in classical and traditional astrology, informs us of a person’s inner drives and how they manifest as observable human behaviour. In order to discover this information, Ptolemy concentrates on two planets: Mercury and the Moon.
Mercury is given rulership of the intellect and rational mind. The Moon has rulership over the emotions or the irrational mind. This was standard practice for any ancient astrologer. By considering the strength and weakness of both planets within the birth chart and by looking at their relationship to each other, we can begin to build up a picture to see not only what makes someone tick, but how he will tick. But as we are actually here to look at sex let’s cut the chat and get stuck in.
Here is the chart of Casanova, a man who had plenty of sex in his life. With any luck we will find plenty of it after we strip his chart naked and have a good old poke around to see if anything sticks out.
In Casanova’s horoscope both Mercury and the Moon are in the Jupiter ruled signs of Pisces and Sagittarius respectively. Their dispositor Jupiter, is strong in his own sign of Pisces in the 5th house, the house of sex. We didn’t have to do that much fumbling about there, did we? Both Mercury and the Moon are in mutable signs. Ptolemy says that this can make someone “fickle, amorous, versatile” with an inclination to love and the pleasurable things in life. Superficially this is hardly thrilling stuff. But if one thinks about it carefully, what if your Moon or your Mercury, or both, are in mutable signs. Worse still, what if they’re not? This double dose of mutability can indicate a strong inclination for sex and not just any old sex. Interesting and inventive sex is hinted at here, as both his rational mind and his emotions are rendered adaptable (and we know from history that he was). Let’s probe Casanova a bit further and see if anything else pops out.
Straight away we can see that Casanova’s Mercury is weak. It is in both its detriment and fall in the sign of Pisces, so this is a Mercury that will not be firing on all cylinders. Ptolemy indicates that if either Mercury or the Moon are in a mutable sign, then the planet may be difficult to fathom and the individual may even be inclined to duplicity. Mercury’s terrible shape would bear this out and Casanova is more than likely to be inclined to deviousness and to take ‘the downward path’ as a result. This is further emphasised by Mercury’s position with regard to the Sun. It is within 15 degrees of it. This position was known as ‘under sunbeams’ and it was agreed by all ancient astrologers, any planet in this position was burned up, thereby weakening it. It will also make the planet obscure and difficult to see. The impact on the rational, calculating part of Casanova’s mind is that it’s not only in a poor state, but also hidden from others. No doubt there were times when even Casanova found it a bit of a mystery. Mercury’s troubles aren’t over yet. It is peregrine with no essential dignity. Weakened and undignified it will make for a lack of direction or principles, easily swayed, strengthening Mercury’s “fickle, amorous, versatile” potential. Casanova’s sexuality is beginning to take shape. Mercury is also oriental, rising before the Sun. It was not thought of as great place for it to be. It was brighter here, shiny and considered strong, similar to rising. So Mercury is accidentally strong, but very badly afflicted. Ouch! Let’s look at Casanova’s Moon to see if she is in a better position to keep him on the straight and narrow or not.
Sagittarius initially does seems like a good and lucky placement for the Moon, like Mercury it is in a mutable sign and we already know what this means! Similar to Mercury it is also peregrine with no essential dignity of her own but, unlike Mercury, not in detriment or fall. By comparison Moon is in better shape. But what does it all mean? That these two are mutable, implies Casanova’s ‘soul’ is predisposed to sex, capricious behaviour and adaptability, or, inventiveness. His rational mind is undignified and weak, but probably suited to Mercury’s less appealing qualities. His emotions are in slightly better shape so are most likely to dominate. Having gotten this far in our initial peek at Casanova’s sexuality, there is one final thing we must touch on – both planets and their relationship to each other.
Mercury and the Moon’s relationship
Casanova’s Mercury and Moon are in square aspect. This indicates friction between his reasoning and emotions. The symbolism of his extremely weakened Mercury pitted against the slightly better off Moon, will tell us that Casanova was more driven by his emotions, acting on his much stronger desire nature and gut reactions, rather than thinking things through logically. It’s likely he ended up talking himself into things he shouldn’t have. Lust beating off reason perhaps?
Now we turn our attention to Jupiter the dispositor of both planets. In fine fettle, not only does it have essential dignity in its own highly fertile sign of Pisces, but is further strengthened by its oriental position. Astrologers of old considered the outer planets, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars better placed here. As we have already seen, they likened them to a planet conjunct the ascendant, rising and therefore strong and forceful. Jupiter is positively exploding with vim and vigour. Ptolemy says of the ruler of the soul, “…should the planets having dominion be in places of their own…the mental properties will be rendered exquisite, unimpeded, and successful”. Unimpeded and successful? I’m sure we all know at what!
Jupiter with his excellent status no doubt put a huge optimistic and positive spin on everything, adding luck into the whole mixture and in so doing, increased Casanova’s “fickle, amorous, versatile” inclinations with obvious rewards. Jupiter’s house placement directs the affairs of Mercury and the Moon towards that well known fifth house activity of sex. These two planets never stood a chance being controlled by this ebullient and fecund Jupiter. With his hot and moist temperament, he is up for anything and everything. The fifth house was, and still is, considered a good house for any planet to be posited. This is a lucky placement and traditionally known as the house of Good Fortune. Jupiter is the planet of good fortune, as well as the planet of abundance. We know just what kind of fortunate abundance he delivered to Casanova.
The Governors of the Soul
Ptolemy tells us how to find “the governors of the soul”. Here we begin to look for planets which direct and shape us. Calling them “the planets that dominate” Ptolemy tells us they “contribute much to the character of the soul.” Keeping the same two significators of Mercury and the Moon we take a more in depth look at what makes Casanova tick.
Starting with the Moon, the indicator of his emotions and gut reactions, she is in Jupiter’s sign and triplicity as Jupiter rules the fire triplicity in a nocturnal chart. The Moon is also in aspect or “concilliated” with Jupiter by square and this may indicate several things including a large, restless emotional appetite. Now let’s turn our attention to Mercury.
We already know its in Jupiter’s sign, but Mercury happens to be in the triplicity of Mars who, according to Ptolemy, rules the water triplicity at night. Mercury is also in the face of Mars. So Casanova has two planets battling for control of the rational part of his soul, But which one takes precedence? In cases where there are two planets vying for dominance, we always take the one in the strongest position. Ptolemy tells us this is the planet with the most essential and accidental dignity. It is only when we have determined what kind of condition Jupiter and Mars are in, that we can we begin to see what kind of job they make as governors of the soul. Let’s go back to Jupiter. As well as his aforementioned strengths, he has additional dignity by being in sect. He just gets stronger and stronger. Now on to Mars. With accidental dignity in his own triplicity and by being in the 5th house he looks good too. Though both planets are well placed to be governors, it is Jupiter who is the stronger of the two planets as it also disposits Mars, so Jupiter takes precedence. Ptolemy tells us a well placed and strong Jupiter, (and let’s face it, this Jupiter is a whopper!), allied with Mars, can make his subjects “restless, unruly, ardent” even, “reckless… virile… passionate.” Sounds like the Casanova we all know and love.
Before Ptolemy gets round to sex he looks first at mental illness or as he calls it “the diseases of the soul”. As far as Ptolemy is concerned, mental illness is a morbid obsession of the active part of our soul and has some general characteristics which are based again on the Moon and Mercury, their status and relationship to each other. Regarding sex, Ptolemy says it is “the corresponding perversion of the passive portion”. That Ptolemy rates sex alongside diseases of the soul is an interesting coupling. Are we to be driven mad by lust and desire, or, are we all sex mad? In order to look at sex itself and how it will manifest, Ptolemy now instructs us to switch partners, looking to the Sun and Moon. The Sun is the active, masculine principle and as the ancient astrologers knew, the general significator for men. The Moon is the passive, feminine principle and the general significator of women. To these two we add in Mars as for men, it is their “disposition with respect to matters of love” and for women, we use Venus to perform the function of Mars. A quick look at Casanova’s chart finds three of the indicators for sexuality in mutable signs. Need I say more?
Getting an eyeful
Looking to Casanova’s chart we find the Sun in Aries and the Moon in Sagittarius. Both lights are in masculine signs and unattended, they inhabit the house alone. Ptolemy sees this as giving a sort of free reign to one’s sexual expression as there is no planet to mitigate or blend the expression of the planetary energy of the lights. An unattended Sun will exceed in natural masculine instincts “…so as merely to increase the virility and activity of the soul”. That the Sun is in a masculine sign will give more ‘grunt’ to his sex drive and, as all masculine signs are active and dynamic, this will manifest in an overt way of operating. Given that Casanova’s Sun is exalted in Aries it will raise this active masculine principle further giving him a very strong sex drive.
The Moon will perform a similar function as the Sun in a woman’s chart, increasing the natural female qualities. In a man’s chart it will still drive his emotions. In Casanova’s chart the Moon is in a masculine sign, therefore the more passive and receptive qualities that the Moon indicates will be more dynamic indicating an active desire for sex. Like the Sun the Moon is unattended, unrestrained, making one wanton and lusty.
The planet or planets which control the Sun and the Moon will have much to say about the direction this sex drive might take. Looking to the dispositors of both Lights we are very neatly taken back to Jupiter and Mars again with Jupiter as the ultimate controller!
The naughty bits
Mars and Venus are the other two planets used as sexual delineators. Their placement in the active masculine or passive feminine signs will colour the expression of one’s sexuality. In Casanova’s chart, both are “made masculine”. They both rise before the Sun, so like Jupiter they are oriental and of the active principle. This is not a problem for Mars as it is better placed here in this more active position. It is not so good for Venus. In olden days astrologers considered Venus to be more troublesome here. An occidental placement, that is rising after the Sun was considered a much better place for her to be and Ptolemy says “… if likewise Mars or Venus ….both of them so posited either one or both of them, is made masculine, the males become addicted to natural sexual intercourse, and are adulterous, insatiate, and ready on every occasion for base and lawless acts of sexual passion.” Without pausing for breath Ptolemy continues, “..and the rising and morning positions of both Mars and Venus have contributory effect, to make them more virile and notorious.” There really is nothing else to add to this statement. It’s starting to look very hot indeed in Casanova’s 5th house!
Mars is important for a number of reasons in Casanova’s chart. It’s not only an indicator of sexuality nor just a co ruler of his “soul”. Mars is Casanova’s Ascendant ruler and, according to the rules of traditional astrology, Mars is Casanova himself. Mars’ placement with his dispositor Jupiter in the fifth house, gives us an insight into his modus operandum. That Casanova was interested in sex we cannot dispute historically. He must have had immense sex appeal and Ptolemy tells us why. Mars is with an extremely dignified Jupiter which indicated Casanova would have “greater decorum, restraint, and modesty”. We also know that he could be aggressive in getting his sexual needs met and Mars does rule this quality. Found with the debilitated Mercury ruling his lack of rational behaviour, “tends to increase notoriety, instability of the emotions, versatility, and foresight” and let’s not forget, Mars is square Casanova’s Moon. Jupiter disposits all three, so Casanova probably had charm by the bucket load which he used to great effect get what he wanted. Venus in Pisces would have added charm to this mixture and no doubt helped sweeten Casanova’s tongue. She is exalted after all. Ptolemy does tell us that Venus can cause people “to be advanced in honour through female interest”. The Part of Fortune is well placed too, nestling with its dispositor Jupiter and the exalted Venus. But before we start feeling jealous of Casanova not all is as it seems.
The trouble starts with Mars, well not Mars himself but the company he keeps. His troubles arise from being bound up in everything we have already discussed. Venus the planet of Love is the culprit. She ranks second only to Jupiter in strength as she is in her exaltation and in her house of Joy. Ruling Taurus on the 7th house, the house of partners, she is traditionally the significator of pretty girls and pretty boys – nice! These partners are in the fifth house – nicer still! But notice, this exalted Venus also rules the unfortunate 12th house of the Bad Daemon which is the house of vice and self undoing. As we have already mentioned this Venus is difficult to control. Casanova’s strong Venus shows us that these vices and self undoings will be very pleasant and very likely too tempting for Mars to resist. Mars exalts Venus and whatever she stands for. Ptolemy says of Venus that she can make one “pleasure-loving…given to misconduct in matters of love…passionate for both young men and young women.”. Venus is what all the planets in the 5th house have in common, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter, all three exalt her and hold all she represents highly.
To ancient astrologers when Venus came over the horizon before the Sun she was known as Lucifer, the “light-bearer”. In this oriental position she is said to be increasing in light, rising before the Sun to herald the dawn. It is here that Venus manages to outshine both Jupiter and Saturn, mesmerising and only fading once the Sun has risen. Later on in our culture she was seen as a fallen angel, cast out by God during the great war in heaven and somehow, even changed sex to become the modern Devil we now call Lucifer. She still leads us into temptation especially where the pleasures of the flesh are concerned. Nowadays the phrase ‘Fallen Angel’ is associated with prostitutes. Venus with her luminous beauty continues to seduce and she certainly is attractive to behold. This is why the ancient astrologers considered this placement of Venus unfortunate. Better to have Venus occidental in a horoscope and rising after the Sun where she couldn’t shine, so was much less trouble. They thought of her as a bit of a poisoned chalice and no doubt she was fulfilled this function for poor old Casanova too.
This look at Casanova’s sex drive is almost complete, but we cannot ignore the dignified Saturn who “concilliates” with all the planets in the fifth house by sextile aspect. As ever Ptolemy has something further to say on the matter of sex. He is specific about Saturn’s effects. “…if Saturn is present, his influence joins with each of the foregoing to produce more licentiousness, impurity, and disgrace”. Need I go on? Before we finally put Casanova to bed, Saturn has the last word as Saturn always does. It rules the fixed sign Aquarius on the 4th house cusp, the house of one’s legacy and what you leave behind after death. Being strong in his own sign of Capricorn and in sect, Saturn is in trine aspect to an exalted Sun. Casanova received Saturn’s gifts of endurance and stamina – and let’s face it he needed them – amplified by this benefic and powerful Sun. This illumination of Saturn by the exalted Sun provides a fitting end for Casanova. By ensuring lasting fame for the eponymous Casanova his reputation as a great and prolific lover has remained so very long after his death. It is of no surprise we see it posited in the house of communication. His name has been set in stone until the end of time